Since when does NOAA study polar bears?

We use drones to survey Steller sea lions but what about northern fur seals?

ksweeney

May 16, 2019
Katie Sweeney

Biologist

 

restingbear.pngThis post may come to a surprise to you. You may find yourself thinking, “I didn’t think NOAA studied polar bears…” Well, you’d be right! The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service is charged with monitoring and managing polar bear populations, and other marine mammal species such as, manatees, sea otters, and walrus (and I bet they would have jurisdiction of the Steller sea cow, as well, if it wasn’t extinct!). The Fish and Wildlife Service also manages numerous terrestrial species. NOAA monitors and manages the other marine mammal species and commercial fish species. 

 

Those marine mammal species include ribbon, spotted, ringed, and bearded seals, also referred to as “ice seals.” The method that the Polar Ecosystem Program here at NOAA Fisheries’ Marine Mammal Laboratory uses to survey these species is with fixed wing, occupied aircraft. These seals can be pretty spread out throughout the sea ice, and therefore challenging to find. They have a special camera system that is equipped with three cameras that capture standard, visual images (like those you take with your cell phone or point and shoot camera) and three thermal cameras. These are similar to the ones we used during our northern fur seal surveys, last year.

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Credit: NOAA Fisheries

Since these surveys are conducted over sea-ice to look for ice seals, it only makes sense to also look for polar bears at the same time. Polar bears prey on certain ice seal species and heavily depend on sea-ice so there is overlap of habitat between all of these species. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and NOAA are collaborating on developing these surveys to better detect polar bears, as the current method does great detecting ice seals, but not polar bears. To help, I was fortunate enough to go on a trip to Ontario Canada to visit the Cochrane Polar Bear Habitat to test out a new camera and answer some questions to help the lead biologist figure out how to better detect polar bears.

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Olympus point and shoot and UV camera (red lens on upper left). Credit: NOAA Fisheries

This new camera is a UV camera which means the UV light that the sun emits is captured in the image. Polar bears absorb UV light so they show up as black whereas clean snow and ice, reflect UV light and shows up white. This sort of camera and imaging capability would come in handy to detect black bears when polar bears do not show up well in visual images (think: white bears against white snow and ice) or in thermal images (think: well-insulated younger bears that just went for a swim and show up as ‘colder’ and can be confused with dirty snow and ice ‘hot spots’).

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Visual image (left) and UV image (right) with red arrows pointing to polar bear. Credit: NOAA Fisheries
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Visual image (left) and thermal image (right) with red arrow pointing to polar bear. Credit: NOAA Fisheries

BearWhile in Canada at the Cochrane Polar Bear Habitat, we were able to fly over the five polar bears at the bear habitat with our new hexacopter drones, the APH-28s. One hexacopter had the thermal camera (FLIR DUO Pro R) which also has visual image capabilities. The other system had a regular point and shoot camera to collect visual images and the new UV camera that was built at MML. This opportunity allowed us to answer important questions to greatly improve our future survey methods.


I have been a biologist in NOAA Fisheries Alaska Fisheries Science Center studying Steller sea lion population abundance and life history for over 10 years. I am an FAA certified remote pilot and have been flying marine mammal surveys with our hexacopter since 2014. I earned my B.S. in Aquatic and Fishery Sciences at the University of Washington and my Master in Coastal Environmental Management at Duke University. 

May 1st: >38

Sea Lion of the Month

SLM_extent.png^38_20180701.JPGSpring has sprung and I’m already dreaming about heading out into the field this summer… We’ll be heading back out to the Aleutian Islands and visiting all these sites of which you have all been viewing. I’m very excited to visit one of my favorite sites, Hasgox Point on Ulak Island. Which is where our May Sea Lion of the Month was born! This month’s sea lion is >38 who is a female that was born in 2013. When she was marked, she weighed 76 pounds (34.6 kg) and was just over 3.5 feet (111 cm) long.

This female has only ever been seen on Ulak Island so she is definitely sticking to her birth place. We seen her each year during our visits on the summer research cruise (hopefully we see her this year, again!). We saw her with her first pup last year, in 2018 when she was 5 years old. This is the pretty typical age to have a first pup and means she bred in previous summer (2017. It is certainly possible she had a pup in 2017 however, when we saw her there was quite the commotion so we didn’t get a good look.

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When we saw her during our visit in 2017. We had gone to shore in hopes to mark more pups however, three killer whales showed up which meant we didn’t want to push any animals in the water so we had about a 5-hour killer whale show around the rookery. You can see in the picture that when killer whales show up, sea lions are alert and ready to jump in the water. Seems counter-intuitive, doesn’t it? You’ll find its mostly adults that work this group mob mentality and the smaller juveniles tend to stay on shore, as they’re pretty good snacking size for the whales. Fortunately, on this day, the killer whales didn’t get any sea lions and moved along and we were able to mark animals the next day.

Have any of you seen her with a pup or at a site other than Ulak?


We will share the story of one marked sea lion each month. Be sure to check our Sea Lion of the Month page on the 1st of every month to learn about our featured Steller sear lion. You may nominate a sea lion by submitting their full mark on the Sea Lion of the Month nomination forum. Thank you all for your nominations!