Studying northern fur seals

Understanding northern fur seal relationship with prey key to conservation

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October 11, 2017
Carey Kuhn

Biologist

 

This blog was featured on the Alaska Fisheries Science Center’s Dispatches from the Field. Since we have seen a sighting of a northern fur seal on Steller Watch we thought it would be great to share this incredible project with you all. Katie Sweeney of the Steller Watch team recently returned from the trip effort in September!

What’s Happening?

July 7, 2016—The northern fur seal population on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska has been experiencing an unexplained decline since the mid-1970s. This despite it being one of the most studied marine mammals.

Critical information is still lacking about the relationship between fur seals and their prey, which is mostly fish. That’s why this summer scientists will begin researching where the prey is located, how abundant it is and how that affects fur seals’ behavior and population trends.

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Pribilof Islands (St. Paul and St. George Islands) in Alaska, USA

In mid-July, we start tracking adult female northern fur seals in the Bering Sea near the Pribilof Islands using temporary tags glued onto the animals. The tags are removed after the animals make a few trips to sea.

At the same time, researchers will also be measuring the availability of fish that are the seal’s main food source. This part of the study is made possible by using two Saildrones. The Saildrones are unmanned, solar and wind powered boats that are collecting data across the Bering Sea this summer. Follow their movements here.

This project is an important step forward in our understanding of northern fur seal ecology and behavior. It’s vital for developing effective management and conservation strategies as the northern fur seal population continues to decline.

Check out the blog posted during the first year of this project conducted during the summer of 2016.

Tagging females at strategic breeding site on the northeast point of St. Paul Island

July 20, 2016—We’re half way through our field work capturing and tagging fur seals breeding on St. Paul Island, Alaska. We arrived on St. Paul on July 13 and after gathering our gear and doing basic upkeep to our equipment, we headed out to a northern fur seal rookery, or breeding site, last Thursday. We’re working at the northeast point of St. Paul Island, at the Vostochni rookery.

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Vostochni rookery on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA

This site was chosen for a number of reasons. One consideration was the ability to maneuver around the terrain and groups of animals, which are called harems, with our capture gear.

The terrain also provides great cover to easily recapture the animals later in the season. The instruments we use to track the fur seals record and store all of the data so it’s necessary to recapture these animals to get a complete picture of their behavior over the summer breeding season.

But the most important reason we chose Vostochni rookery is that we have good historical data on the fur seals that breed here. Based on previous studies we know that fur seals from northeast point generally feed north and northwest of the island on the Bering Shelf. This information helps us know where to direct the unmanned Saildrones that will gather information about fur seals’ prey.

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Dr. Kuhn and Dr. Sterling look for adult females with pups to capture and tag

For this part of the study, there are three of us on the field team: Jeremy Sterling a colleague from the Marine Mammal Lab, John Skinner a volunteer who works for the Alaska Department of Fish and Game and me.

So far, we’ve captured and instrumented 17 females and we are aiming for 30. Each fur seal is equipped with a satellite-linked dive recorder that will measure dive behavior and provide at-sea location information. These data will be linked with the fish abundance data measured by the Saildrones to help us understand how prey availability influences fur seal behavior.

Met our tagging goal and already obtaining important at-sea data about northern fur seals

July 25, 2016—Today the team is heading home to Seattle after a very successful field session. But I’ll be coming back in September to complete the study. For this first leg, we reached our goal and captured 30 fur seal mother-pup pairs and deployed 30 satellite tracking instruments on the adult females. We were pretty excited about that 30th fur seal. As of today, all but four of the fur seals are out to sea on their first summer foraging trip of the year. The remaining four will likely leave in the next day or two.

We use what we call the “box” or “tank” to move into the rookery, between harems, and work on an animal. I can’t help but think of the Flintstone’s car as we pick up our box and drive it into the rookery each day.

I mentioned in the last post that I’d tell you how we catch the fur seals. It’s not easy during the early breeding season (July) since male fur seals are aggressive about holding territories and keeping females within their harem, or group of females.

We use what we call the “box” or “tank” to move into the rookery, between harems, and work on an animal. I can’t help but think of the Flintstone’s car as we pick up our box and drive it into the rookery each day. Often, we can position the box right next to a harem with minimal disturbance. Check out this blog to learn more about the box-capture technique.

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The box is used on the rookery to keep biologists safe as they move through the rookery during the peak of the breeding season

We then select a female and pull her into our box leaving her head out, facing the harem. This year we also collected each female’s pup to get its weight measurement. This will help us track the pup’s growth over the season which is linked to mom’s success finding food. The more fish a female fur seal can find, the more milk she can give her pup.

Now that most of the females are out at sea, the tags are collecting detailed diving data which are stored on the device until I can recover them. The tags also send location information through satellites so we know where the fur seals are and we can watch the fur seals’ movements in relation to the two Saildrones that are measuring fish densities.

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Saildrone in St. Paul, AK

Currently, each Saildrone is following a grid pattern that we had established before tagging the females. But as the season progresses, we can adjust the pattern to make sure the Saildrones are sampling the feeding areas that our tagged fur seals are using.

As I said, I head back to St. Paul Island in September but I’ll be with a different team of researchers. We’ll recover all of the satellite tracking instruments and see how much the pups have grown.

In the coming weeks, I’ll share the latest information we’re getting from the fur seals, the Saildrones (click to follow the Saildrones’ movements), and any new discoveries we come across. This is crucial information that will help us in our efforts to conserve northern fur seals.

Early results from Saildrone research mission, one fur seal traveled 165 miles for food

August 22, 2016—We’re quickly approaching the final days of the northern fur seal portion of the Saildrone 2016 mission. The two Saildrones have already surveyed more than 1700 miles within the fur seal foraging area. Devices attached to the unmanned boats are measuring and locating walleye pollock, northern fur seals’ main food source.

As for the fur seals, I’ve been closely monitoring limited real-time data coming in from the tags glued onto the animals. All tracking instruments continue to send useful information about the fur seals’ movements and dive behavior. Each fur seal has made between three and five foraging trips, alternating time at sea with time on land nursing their growing pup and resting too.

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Adult female rests with her pup after a foraging trip

I’m really looking forward to September when I head back to St. Paul Island to weigh the pups, measure their growth and recover the tracking instruments, obtaining a wealth of information stored directly on the tags.

Meanwhile, there is still that smaller group of fur seals not feeding within the grid pattern the Saildrones have been following. We want to learn more about what they are feeding on too. That’s why in the next couple of days we’ll have the Saildrones move farther north and east, where the other animals are traveling.

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Saildrone path (straight line transect grid in yellow-orange) over adult female fur seal satellite tag tracklines in the Bering Sea near St. Paul Island in the Pribilof Islands, AK

After that, one Saildrone will make a quick trip east to listen for critically endangered North Pacific Right whales. There are just an estimated 30 left. Then both boats head back to Dutch Harbor, Alaska to end the mission.

The next step will be starting the process of analyzing all the data from the fur seal tags and the devices on the Saildrone. It will take a couple of months for my colleague, fisheries biologist Alex De Robertis and me to process all the information. We are excited to get a better idea of the prey available to the fur seals during these summer months which may help us unravel why this population continues to decline.

Recovering instruments and collecting blood samples to gain a wealth of new information

September 29, 2016—I’m back on St. Paul Island and fur seal recaptures are well underway. We started the work on Thursday and have already recovered 22 instruments! It’s been an intense couple of days but we are happy to be ahead of schedule.

Catching fur seals this time of year is much different than catching them in July. The box has been put back into storage. Now we are spending much of our time on the ground, crawling among the fur seals. Read how seasons affect fur seal capturing techniques.

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Biologists look for tagged adult females to recapture and carefully remove satellite tags.

Once an animal is caught, her tracking instruments are removed by cutting the top layer of hair just under the instrument. This layer is called the guard hair and it will regrow after the fur seal goes through her annual molt in October. We also collect external or morphometric measurements, including the animals’ weight and length, and take a blood sample. The blood will be used in a variety of studies, including: an assessment of general health, a study investigating mercury levels, and research measuring stable isotopes as a method for identifying foraging locations.

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Dr. Kuhn carefully removing a satellite tag that was glued on an adult female northern fur seal

While mother fur seals are out at sea feeding, their pups are spending time sleeping, playing, and roaming the rookery in little pup packs. This makes the pups a little harder to catch. And since pups are not marked in any way, it’s also difficult to match mothers with their rightful pups. An instrumented mom and her pup are often surrounded by a number of other pups awaiting their moms’ return. But despite this challenge, we have been quite successful and captured 12 mother-pup pairs so far.

The ten other recaptured females were not with their pups when we caught them. So, as we wait for the remaining instrumented females to return to the island, we will try to catch as many of those pups as we can. Pups are an important part of the study because we can use their weight gain over the summer to determine how successful their mothers were during foraging trips. The largest pup to date was 34 pounds, more than double what he weighed in July.

Since the majority of the instruments have been recovered, we expect the remaining animals to trickle in over the next few days. Check back next week for more instrument recovery updates. Will we meet our goal? I’ll also share a glimpse of the data that we collected this year!

New data from satellite instruments shows stark differences in fur seal feeding behavior

October 13, 2016— After a very busy couple of weeks, I am happy to report that I am back in Seattle and ready to start the next leg of our 2016 Saildrone mission: data analysis!

We were able to recapture 29 of the 30 instrumented females and remove their tags, resulting in one of our highest instrument recovery rates in years. Eighteen of those females were caught with their pups, giving us the ability to link the females’ foraging behavior and their reproductive success.

I wanted to share with you what our fur seal dive records look like. Below are two females’ dive patterns. They’re good examples of how different dive behavior can be between individuals. The graphs show dive behavior over the same 12 hours window – but on different days. The top plot is for July 28. The second plot is from July 30. Notice how both the number of dives and dive depths differ between these two fur seals.

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Dive profiles of two adult female northern fur seals

The first female (top graph in image above) was regularly diving more than 70 meters which is about 200 feet. The second female (bottom graph) never went past about 65 meters and only went to that depth twice. Yet, the foraging grounds used by these two females were relatively close, just northeast of St. Paul Island. We don’t know why there are such differences but we hope to find out.

The data collected from the Saildrone will be able to tell us more about the fish at these fur seals’ foraging sites. Perhaps we’ll find that where the first seal was feeding the pollock were larger in deeper water.

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A satellite tagged adult female lies on a log with her pup

The data analysis stage will take several months and the process is a collaborative effort. I’ll be analyzing all of the fur seal data and will work with my colleague Alex De Robertis who is examining the fish abundance data. That information was collected from acoustic devices attached to the Saildrone. We’ll merge the data sets to get a clearer picture of fur seals and their pollock prey in the Pribilof Islands.

This field season was incredibly successful overall and it wouldn’t have been possible without the hard work of my field teams in both July and September. Their enthusiasm and commitment, even in some awful weather conditions, made it possible to recover a wealth of data that will be vital for helping us understand fur seal declines.


Carey Kuhn is an ecologist at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center’s Marine Mammal Laboratory. Carey joined the Lab’s Alaska Ecosystems program in 2007 after completing her Ph.D. at the University of California Santa Cruz. Her research focuses on the at-sea behavior of northern fur seals.

*Notes: Research conducted and photos collected under the authority of MMPA Permit No. 14327. All data presented here are preliminary analyses and subject to change.

Seals and sea lions: What’s the difference?

There are a few tricks to tell the difference between these two animal groups

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September 13, 2017
Katie Sweeney

Biologist

 

Now that we have started seeing reports of northern fur seal sightings from citizen scientists in our remote camera images on Steller Watch, I thought this would be the perfect time to discuss the differences between seals and sea lions! Northern fur seals add a bit confusion as they have “seal” in their name but, are they true seals? The short answer is, “no!”

Pinnipeds can be found in waters all over the world, even some lakes!

Here’s the long answer…

Pinnipeds (or suborder pinnipedia, which means “feather-” or “flipper-footed”) include three different groups of animals: walrus (the Odobenidae family), seals (Phocidae family), and sea lions (Otariidae family). The walrus is the only species alive in the Odobenidae family and can be found throughout the arctic (North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans). They are one of the largest pinnipeds and actually have air sacks in their chest that they can inflate to help them float, much like a life jacket (reference: Marine Mammal Center)!

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Generally accepted classification of the carnivora order. These sorts of classifications can change over time as new fossil and DNA evidence becomes available.

Seals, or ‘phocids’ (sounds like “faux-sids”), are often referred to as true seals or earless seals. They do in fact have ears though no external ear flaps, just small holes on either side of their head. Phocids also have small front flippers and while on land, galumph, or “inchworm”, to move around. At-sea, they use their hind flippers to propel themselves.

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This is a great infographic showing different phocid species. Created by Peppermint Narwhal (via Facebook).

Sea lions, or ‘otariids’ (sounds like “oat-a-ry-ids”), are often referred to as eared seals include both sea lions and fur seals. Otariids have external ear flaps and large front flippers that they can rotate around and down in order to stand upright and “walk” on land. At-sea, they mostly use their large front flippers to propel themselves through the water. Fur seals do differ a bit from their fellow sea lion otarrids in that they have longer flippers and thicker fur. So, both northern fur seals and Steller sea lions are otariids and not phocids, or “seals”! Check out the images below of a northern fur seal pup and Steller sea lion pups showing those external ear flaps and upright posture and rotated flippers.

Pinnipeds can be found in waters all over the world, even some lakes! You may notice that there aren’t many species that inhabit warm tropical areas around the equator, though there are a few.

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National Geographic infographic of pinniped species worldwide distribution (1987).

We will be sharing more about these northern fur seals in Alaska that many of you may start to see at Cape St. Stephens (Kiska Island) in remote camera images. There is an interesting project happening right now that I will share more about in our next blog post!


I have been a biologist in NOAA Fisheries Alaska Fisheries Science Center studying Steller sea lion population abundance and life history for over 10 years. I am an FAA certified remote pilot and have been flying marine mammal surveys with our hexacopter since 2014. I earned my B.S. in Aquatic and Fishery Sciences at the University of Washington and my Master in Coastal Environmental Management at Duke University. 

Not so black and white

Understanding the role of killer whales in the Aleutian Islands

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August 22, 2017
Kristin Campbell

Biologist

 

As I peer through the binoculars, a jet-black, triangular dorsal fin slowly arcs over the ocean’s glassy horizon. There is no mistaking it… we found killer whales!

NOAA Fisheries. Permit No. 20465

For centuries killer whales have captured the human imagination. Although arguably one of the most recognizable species, there is a lot we still do not know about them… but we are learning! NOAA Fisheries’ Cetacean Assessment and Ecology Program has been studying killer whales in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska since 2001. As researchers, our goal is to better understand the abundance (how many whales there are), distribution (where the whales are), social structure, and feeding behavior of killer whales in the Central and Western Aleutian Islands. The information we learn about these populations can help us understand the role of killer whales within this fragile ecosystem. We are particularly interested in how, or if, Bigg’s (“mammal-eating”) killer whale predation or resident (“fish-eating”) prey competition may be impacting Steller sea lion recovery in the Western Aleutian Islands.

Transient killer whale predation on marine mammals in the Aleutian Islands has rarely been observed. However, on this year’s cruise we happened upon a predation event in-progress at Hasgox Point on Ulak Island.

During this year’s Steller sea lion cruise, killer whale biologist, Dr. Paul Wade, and I conducted cetacean (whale, dolphin, and porpoise) surveys from the highest point of our research vessel, the flying bridge. We spent hours scanning the horizon with our binoculars as our ship traveled from one Steller sea lion site to the next. When we sighted whales or porpoises we noted the species, group size, and their GPS location. This year we saw many cetacean species on our voyage including sperm whales, fin whales, humpback whales, Dall’s porpoise, beaked whales, and others. Surveys give us information about whale population abundance and distribution within the Aleutian Islands.

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When we encountered killer whales, we suspended our survey in order to collect photographs of the killer whale’s dorsal fins and adjacent saddle patch pigmentation. We are able to make an initial determination of ecotype (“fish-eating” resident or “mammal-eating” Bigg’s) in the field based on physical characteristics of the dorsal fin and saddle patch, group size, and behavior. However, photographs allow us to later confirm the ecotype designation and even identify individual killer whales from their natural markings. If conditions permitted, we launched a small vessel for closer approaches to collect tissue biopsies or deploy satellite tags.

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Transient killer whale predation on marine mammals in the Aleutian Islands has rarely been observed. However, on this year’s cruise we happened upon a predation event in-progress at Hasgox Point on Ulak Island. We observed two transient killer whales methodically “working” the sea lion rookery. The killer whales closely approached sea lion groups on the shore and in the water.

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These killer whales may seem menacing, but Steller sea lions are not defenseless! Steller sea lions are large, agile in the water, and have big teeth that could harm killer whales. Even though many sea lions were in the water, the killer whales were not successful in making a kill and eventually moved on. The next morning we observed another group of four Bigg’s killer whales at Ulak Island. This group was more active, they hunted further away from the rookery, and displayed exciting behaviors like tail slaps, spy hops, and even porpoising.

Image credit: NOAA Fisheries. Permit# 20465 MML/AFSC/NMFS/NOAA

This year we successfully deployed two satellite tags on Bigg’s killer whales. Satellite tags give us information about where the whales travel and how deep they dive, unlocking the mysteries of their daily activities. Previous satellite data from Bigg’s killer whales in the Western Aleutians has revealed distinct foraging patterns. The tagged Bigg’s killer whales made shallow dives around Steller sea lion rookeries in the early mornings and repetitive deep dives (to almost 400m!) in the evenings. This data has revealed that Bigg’s killer whales in the Central and Western Aleutians forage on both marine mammals and squid!

NOAA Fisheries. Permit No. 20465

We look forward to analyzing the data we have collected this field season (including photographs, remote camera images, satellite tag data, and survey data) and discovering more about whales in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.


I am a volunteer researcher for NOAA’s Marine Mammal Lab studying killer whales and for the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture studying sea otter morphology and foraging behavior. I earned my B.S. from the University of Washington in Biology. I plan to attend graduate school in marine mammal science.

Getting away from it all . . .

Returning from two months away at a remote field camp

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August 15, 2017
Molly McCormley

Biologist

 

I was one of the seven researchers who lived on a remote Alaskan island to study Steller sea lions during the 2017 summer breeding season. These field camps are important for studying behavior and vital rates (like survival and birth rates) of Steller sea lions across their range – much like what you’re doing on Steller Watch! People always ask me what it’s like to spend two months on a remote island in the Aleutians. I can honestly say that it’s some of the best months of my year!

I have just returned from my fifth summer at a Steller sea lion field camp and was stationed on Marmot Island for the first time! Picture a cabin in the middle of moss-covered woods, situated a couple hundred feet back from the beach, next to a fresh water lagoon. Can’t get more picturesque than that! Now imagine you get to wake up to birds chirping every morning and while you sip your coffee on the deck, fox kits (baby foxes) wrestle a few yards away and deer graze a little way off. Doesn’t sound too bad, huh? Those days make up for the times when the weather refuses to cooperate (heavy rain or strong wind) and fog obscures even the lagoon from view.

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I was stationed at this cabin with one other field camper. Each day, we completed a four-hour shift at a Steller sea lion rookery (breeding site). A two-mile uphill hike is required to get to this site which, depending on the day, can be amazing. However, care must be taken to avoid devils club, a spiky monstrosity, and cow parsnip (also known as pushki), which contains a photosensitive chemical – it reacts with the sun and can cause blistering or skin discoloration. Machetes are sometimes required, especially in the beginning of the season, to clear the path and we take extra precautions to avoid coming into contact with pushki “juice”.

Image credit: Koa Matsuoka, NOAA Fisheries

Once at the site, we sit about 500 feet above the sea lions, with harnesses and climbing ropes clipped into an anchor system to ensure our safety. Our location allows us to observe the sea lions without disturbing them. Using binoculars and spotting scopes, we observe and record behavior of marked sea lions, as well as any other marine mammals in the area (e.g., killer whales), disturbance events (e.g., caused by rock slides), or sightings of Steller sea lions entangled in fishing gear and other marine debris.

Most days, these shifts fly by since watching Steller sea lion behavior never gets old to me. There’s always cute pups suckling or playing together; juveniles bouncing around the rookery, sometimes sneaking milk from females who are unaware; females giving birth; and males fighting to keep their territories. Having done this project for many years, I get to see the same animals every day and sometimes across multiple years. This allows me to get to know these individuals and makes collecting data exciting. What always amazes me about these animals is their hardiness and their ability to survive in harsh sub-arctic conditions!

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One unique thing that I observed this summer was a female nursing two juveniles! It’s rare for sea lions to have two dependents, though having a juvenile and a new pup is more common on Marmot Island than Ugamak Island. However, I have never seen a female nursing two juveniles. That’s a lot of milk that she has to supply each of them. That means that this female must be very healthy, which is a great sign!

IMG_3891.jpgAt the end of the day, if it’s cold or raining, we light a fire in the wood stove to dry our field clothes and gear and get cozy inside our cabin. Our evening entertainment consists of watching the fox kits play or suckle mom, observing eagles or kingfishers perched around the lagoon, or maybe even just curling up with a good book by the fire. It’s nice to get away from the rush of normal life for a while. I count myself lucky that I get to study Steller sea lions from such an amazing location and I hope to continue this work for many years in the future!

Want to see how field camps operate in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands? Check out this blog by fellow biologists from the Pacific Island Fisheries Science Center about monk seal research in this other remote Pacific Island chain.


I am currently working towards my M.S. at the University of the Pacific studying elephant seals and their hormonal reactions to stress. I earned my B.S. from the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC). After undergraduate school I worked at the Ocean Institute and at UCSC’s Cognition and Sensory Systems Lab. I have worked at the Marine Mammal Laboratory’s summer field camps for the last five seasons to study Steller sea lion behavior and life history.

We’re back from the field!

And we have so much to share with you!

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August 8, 2017
Katie Sweeney

Biologist

The Steller sea lion field season is over and everyone has returned to the office, hard at work processing and analyzing data, and writing up reports. If you’d like to read all about our different trips and scientific goals for each trip, check out our previous Steller Watch blog.

I was fortunate to participate on the research cruise and the re-sight trip. Despite some challenging weather, we were very successful and productive! We also saw a lot of amazing things along the way. Though I had a great time during my four weeks away, I have to admit I’m pretty excited that I won’t have to share tight living quarters with several other people until next year!

Be sure to “Follow” our blog to see more posts over the coming weeks from biologists, field campers and volunteers who participated in this summer’s Steller sea lion field season. And, great news: you can now use the new Zooniverse app to classify images.

During the research cruise on the M/V Tiĝlâx, two big goals we had were to look for previously marked animals (like those you all are looking for on Steller Watch) and to visit a select group of sites to count sea lions. These sites were missed during last year’s Aleutian Islands abundance survey. This means, I was able to fly six sites with our new co-pilot!

We also visited three sites and marked almost 300 pups for our long-term life history study: Gillon Point (Agattu Island, “~” symbol), Hasgox Point (Ulak Island, “>” symbol), and Ugamak Island (“A” letter). Handling and working with these large sea lion pups (weighing 70-110 lbs) is a lot of work but an amazing experience. In the first image (below, left picture) you can see a pup that fell asleep while hanging in the net during weighing!

After weighing, the two pup handlers (middle picture) carefully move the pup to the veterinarian’s station where she applied gas anesthesia until the pup fell asleep. During this time, we collect samples and apply the mark (you can read more about this process here). These pups were then released to the recovery area where we kept a watchful eye to insure they were fully awake and mobile. In the right picture, you can see small square patch of fur has been shaved off. This fur sample is used to measure contaminants, such as mercury.

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Maintenance of and downloading images from our remote cameras were other important goals during the cruise: we collected 245,972 images from 17 of the 20 sea lion remote cameras. For the last two years we haven’t been able to access two of the cameras at Cape Wrangell (Attu Island) due to large waves at the landing site. If the cameras are still working well, they should still be snapping away and capturing images. The third camera was on Cape Sabak (Agattu Island). We were able to get to it but there were no images captured due to some technical difficulties. We did end up putting a new camera on Cape St. Stephens (Kiska Island) for a total of 21 cameras!

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During one of our visits to Hasgox Point we had some unexpected visitors that delayed our work for a day. Two killer whales showed up at the rookery and were swimming around for hours! While we didn’t see any direct sea lion kills, we knew these were transient, or Bigg’s killer whales (“mammal eaters”). It seemed as though they were almost practicing hunting maneuvers. The most interesting thing to see was how the sub-adult and adult males reacted; these males would jump right in the water and swim around, very close to the killer whales! If you’d like to learn more about killer whales in the Aleutian Islands, we have a post coming up from one of our volunteers from the cruise in a couple weeks—be sure to “Follow” our blog so you don’t miss a thing!

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On our way east, we were fortunate that Bogoslof Island, a volcanic island which has been erupting since December 2016, calmed down enough for us to check out (at a safe distance). The island has changed a lot since the last time we visited in 2015. It is much larger and even higher in elevation than before. Interestingly, despite the volcano continuing to erupt, there were thousands of sea birds and hundreds of northern fur seals and Steller sea lions on shore! Looks pretty warm and steamy.

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Be sure to “Follow” our blog to see more posts over the coming weeks from biologists, field campers and volunteers who participated in this summer’s Steller sea lion field season. And, great news: you can now use the new Zooniverse app to classify images (Download for Apple or Android)! We have added more images to our Steller Watch project. Please join us and help figure out why the Steller sea lion continues to decline in the Aleutian Islands.


I have been a biologist in NOAA Fisheries Alaska Fisheries Science Center studying Steller sea lion population abundance and life history for over 10 years. I am an FAA certified remote pilot and have been flying marine mammal surveys with our hexacopter since 2014. I earned my B.S. in Aquatic and Fishery Sciences at the University of Washington and my Master in Coastal Environmental Management at Duke University. 

Gearing up for the field season

We heading off to Alaska and we will be back in August!

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June 6, 2017
Katie Sweeney
Biologist

 

The office has been humming with energy lately. It’s that time of year, the field season is just around the corner. Spring and summer are busy times at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center. This is the time of year when the Center conducts the majority of its field work. Weather in Alaska over the winter isn’t conducive to getting work done, though summer weather offers no guarantees, either!

While we’re away, we will be putting the Steller watch project on hold starting June 20th. Since we won’t have internet while we are in Alaska we can’t respond on the Talk Forum but don’t worry! We’ll be back in August with many more images and stories to share with you all.

Some of the Center’s research trips this year include bottom trawl and hydro-acoustic groundfish surveys, marine mammal aerial surveys in the Arctic, harbor seal vessel surveys, Cook Inlet beluga aerial surveys, and vessel surveys to deploy passive acoustic recorders to record marine mammal sounds. Along with Steller sea lion surveys, our program will also conduct several studies on northern fur seals.

We have four Steller sea lion trips planned, similar to our efforts in 2016. And like all the field work at the Center, these trips require a lot of preparation. It is a coordinated effort to ensure we have everything we need since we will be isolated in very remote places and can’t just run to the store if we forgot something. Here’s a little background about each of our Steller sea lion trips:

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One of our featured bloggers, Katie Luxa, has been working with other biologists to accomplish the large task of packing and preparing gear to be shipped up to Alaska to our remote field camps. They have also been preparing the week-long training class for the seven biological observers who will be living on two uninhabited islands (Ugamak and Marmot Islands) for almost two months. The field campers will live in rudimentary shelters with limited electricity, no internet or cell phones, and no running water. They will be perching above sea lions, going unnoticed to collect data on marked animals and sea lion behavior.

Research cruise

One of the trips I will be participating in will be our annual research cruise on board the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Research Vessel (R/V) Tiĝlax̑ (pronounced TEKH-lah; Aleut for eagle). For two weeks, 13 people from the Alaska Fisheries Science Center will call this 120 foot vessel home. Every summer, six skilled USFWS crew members operate this vessel, a vital platform, for nearshore research along the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge.

During our trip, the primary goal is to study sea lions to collect population counts, service our 20 remote cameras and download images (more images to come for our citizen scientists team members!), look for marked individuals, and mark individuals for on our ongoing research project. Along with sea lion biologists, there are two fish biologists who will dropping an underwater camera near sea lion sites to get a better idea of the available prey. There will also be two killer whale biologists on board looking for killer whales and other species of whales.

hexacopterTo prepare for this trip, I’ve been working with our other remote pilots to test out our new camera mount, called a gimbal, mounted to our hexacopter (or drone). The gimbal mount ensures that the camera will always point directly down and over the sea lions no matter how much the wind causes the hexacopter to tilt. I’m excited to see these mounts in action! We also have a new person on our team who you heard form in our last post about the NOAA Corps. LTJG Blair Delean will be heading up to Alaska with us for the first time to help with hexacopter surveys.

Aerial survey

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Biologists (and featured bloggers) Lowell Fritz, Josh Cutler, and Katie Luxa will be heading out on the annual aerial survey. The team will meet up with NOAA Aircraft Operation Center flight team and Twin Otter aircraft in southeast Alaska. They will survey along the coastline, capturing images of sea lions hauled out on land at known sites.

The aerial survey team assembled and tested our camera mount that holds three cameras; it will be installed on the NOAA Twin Otter. Now we know it’s working fine, I’m packing up all the gear to ship to Alaska.

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After the aerial survey and research cruise, Katie Luxa and I will meet up in Dutch Harbor (Unalaska Island) for our final survey. We will be on board a small boat for six days, checking out nearby sea lion sites for marked animals.

While we’re away, we will be putting the Steller watch project on hold starting June 20th. Since we won’t have internet while we are in Alaska we can’t respond on the Talk Forum but don’t worry! We’ll be back in August with many more images and stories to share with you all. Thank you all for your contributions classifying so many images before we head out. It’s been a joy to share our research with such dedicated people and we are so happy to have you as apart of our team!

Wish us calm seas, clear skies, low winds, and many sea lions!


I have been a biologist in NOAA Fisheries Alaska Fisheries Science Center studying Steller sea lion population abundance and life history for over 10 years. I am an FAA certified remote pilot and have been flying marine mammal surveys with our hexacopter since 2014. I earned my B.S. in Aquatic and Fishery Sciences at the University of Washington and my Master in Coastal Environmental Management at Duke University. 

Service Meets Science

The life of a NOAA Corps officer

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May 24, 2017
LTJG Blair Delean
NOAA Corps Officer

Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have recently become a major tool for studying wildlife. UAS allow scientist to capture aerial imagery of marine life in remote locations with more flight flexibility, and at lower cost than most manned aircraft missions. As a Lieutenant (Junior Grade; LTJG) in the NOAA’s Commissioned Officer Corps (called “NOAA Corps”) and recently designated UAS Pilot in Command at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center, I will be traveling to the Aleutian Islands this summer to study Steller sea lions using UAS. This is the same research cruise that members of the Steller Watch Project research team will be a part of to collect remote camera images.

The NOAA Corps today consists of a team of professionals trained in various scientific disciplines who operate NOAA’s ships, aircraft (like the annual Steller sea lion aerial survey), conduct diving operations, manage research projects, and serve in staff positions throughout NOAA offices.

The NOAA Corps is one of the Nation’s seven uniformed services comprised of 321 officers who serve throughout NOAA’s line and staff offices to support virtually all of the agency’s programs and missions. TheNOAA Corps traces its roots to the former U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, which originated in 1807 under President Thomas Jefferson.

The NOAA Corps today consists of a team of professionals trained in various scientific disciplines who operate NOAA’s ships, aircraft (like the annual Steller sea lion aerial survey), conduct diving operations, manage research projects, and serve in staff positions throughout NOAA offices. NOAA Corps Officers are primarily stationed in the continental United States; however, there are some positions located as remotely as Antarctica, Hawaii, and the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific.

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NOAA Aircraft Operations Center in Florida

Currently, officers operate 16 research vessels which are strategically stationed at various locations around the country. These places include Norfolk, San Diego, Gulf of Mexico, Pacific Northwest, and Honolulu which is where I was last stationed before my assignment to the Alaska Fisheries Science Center in Seattle. The ships are crewed by both NOAA Corps Officers and civilian wage mariners to serve NOAA’s fisheries, hydrographic, or oceanographic missions. The aviation component is comprised of both manned and unmanned aircraft systems operated by Corps officers stationed at the Aircraft Operations Center in Florida.

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My BOTC class on graduation day.

My path to becoming a UAS pilot for NOAA began following my graduation from the Basic Officer Training Class (BOTC) at the United States Coast Guard Academy in the spring of 2014. I was then assigned to the NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. While on the Sette my primary duty was to drive the ship, manage scientific operations, and to serve as the Navigation Officer. Some of my other responsibilities included being the environmental compliance, dive, and property officer. We sailed the main Hawaiian Islands and beyond through the remote Northwest Hawaiian Islands which extend 1,200 miles from Kauai.

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The NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette off the coast of Laysan Island in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument (Northwest Hawaiian Islands).

In the fall of 2016, following my tour on the Sette, I was assigned to the Marine Mammal Laboratory at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center in Seattle, WA. This is when I became involved in UAS operations. I completed the Federal Aviation Administration’s remote pilot exam, followed by the UAS manufacturer training, and then received my UAS Pilot in Command designation from NOAA. Since obtaining my PIC designation I have completed a few practice flights with the scientist UAS team here in Seattle in preparation for the upcoming Steller sea lion field research cruise in the Aleutian Islands this summer. I’m looking forward to my first trip to Alaska—it will be a big change from Hawaii.


I graduated from the University of Maryland, College Park with a degree in Environmental Science and Policy, Marine and Coastal Management (2010). While in college I also played baseball for the Terps, and completed an internship at the Cooperative Oxford Laboratory in Oxford, Maryland. Following graduation (prior to the NOAA Corps) I worked as a contracted Special Investigator for the Office of Personnel Management, and as in intern at the White House Council for Environmental Quality in Washington, D.C.